Rhizome prostrate, stolonlike, ca. 2 mm in diam., also oblique, nodulose, short, 5--8 mm in diam. Scalelike leaves 2 or 3, 4--6 mm. Leaf solitary; petiole 4--8 cm, subglabrous; leaf blade ternate, 2.5--4 × 3--6 cm, glabrous; petiolules 5--10(--20) mm; central leaflet 3-lobed, subcordate-pentagonal, base cuneate, margin crenate to denticulate, apex acuminate or obtuse, segments sessile, 3-lobed; lateral leaflets similar to central one but 2-lobed or 2-cleft, slightly oblique, ultimate lobules obtuse. Scape 10--20(--30) cm, subglabrous; cyme 1-flowered. Involucral bract petiole flat, 10--20(--30) × 3--5 mm, winged, sparsely puberulent or subglabrous; bract blade ternate, larger than that of leaves, 3--6 × 4--8 cm, puberulent; petiolules 5--10(--20) mm; central segment 3-lobed, narrowly rhombic to elliptic, base cuneate, margin irregularly dentate or serrate, apex acuminate; lateral segments oblique, smaller than central one, ultimate lobules obtuse. Pedicel 3--5 cm, puberulent. Sepals 8--12, in 2 whorls, white, bluish, or reddish violet, oblong to narrowly elliptic, glabrous, base and apex rounded; outer whorl 20--25 × 5--8 (--12) mm, basal veins 5--9, vein anastomoses 3--5; inner whorl 10--12 × 3--4 mm, without vein anastomoses. Stamens 4--8 mm; filament filiform, apex slightly dilated; anther ellipsoid, connective narrow. Ovary narrowly ovoid, ca. 1.5 mm, densely puberulent, base narrowed; style straight, conic, short, thickened; stigma subcapitate. Achene body ovoid to ellipsoid, 3.5--5 × 1.5--2 mm, narrowly ribbed, puberulent (hairs ca. 0.2 mm), base narrowed; style curved to recurved, conic, 1--2 mm, base puberulent. Fl. Mar--May.
Forests, scrub, streamsides; 1200--1800 m. W Henan, NW Hubei, S Shanxi, N Xinjiang [Russia; SE Europe (Romania)].
Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.
Herb latin name: Anemone altaica
Family: Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family)
Medicinal use of Anemone altaica: The rhizome is an aromatic stimulant and stomachic. It is used in the treatment of poor appetite and gastro-intestinal distension, insanity, melancholia, epilepsy and impaired consciousness.
Description of the plant:
Height: 20 cm (7 3/4 inch)
Habitat of the herb: Forests, scrub and streamsides at elevations of 1200 - 1800 metres in W Henan, NW Hubei, S Shanxi and N Xinjiang provinces, China.
Propagation of Anemone altaica: Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the summer. Surface sow or only just cover the seed and keep the soil moist. Sow stored seed as soon as possible in late winter or early spring. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 6 months at 15 C. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in light shade in the greenhouse for at least their first year. When the plants are large enough, plant them out in the spring. Division in late summer after the plant dies down.
Cultivation of the herb: Forests, scrub and streamsides at elevations of 1200 - 1800 metres in W Henan, NW Hubei, S Shanxi and N Xinjiang provinces, China.
Known hazards of Anemone altaica: Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, a number of members of this genus are slightly poisonous, the toxic principle is destroyed by heat or by drying.